Highly Accelerated Imaging with Wave-CAIPI

We are pleased to announce the release of our Wave-CAIPI sequence packages for fast clinical and neuroscientific imaging applications.

Wave-CAIPI is a parallel imaging technique that allows high acceleration rates while retaining the image quality [1-4]. Our sequences achieve this by fully utilizing acceleration capability provided by high channel count head arrays. This allows an order of magnitude acceleration in 3D and Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) acquisitions.

Wave-CAIPI makes use of ESPIRiT and BART for coil sensitivity estimation [5,6] and is influenced by 2D-CAIPI and Bunch Phase Encoding ideas [7-9]. 

Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) with Wave-CAIPI:

High resolution SWI and QSM acquisitions with whole-brain coverage are encoding intensive, often leading to long scan times. Wave-CAIPI mitigates this burden with high acceleration, using a flexible acquisition that can sample multiple flow compensated echoes [1,2]. These echoes are combined for improved SNR in magnitude and phase contrasts prior to SWI processing.

Pulse sequence and image reconstruction software for Wave-CAIPI accelerated SWI is now available for the VE11C Siemens platform.

We are currently working on compilations for VE11A and B, as well as the VD13 baseline.

To request the software, instructions and example protocols, please navigate to martinos.org/c2p


MP-RAGE Imaging with Wave-CAIPI:

Pulse sequence and image reconstruction software for MP-RAGE is coming soon!


RARE / Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) Imaging with Wave-CAIPI:

Pulse sequence and image reconstruction software for RARE/TSE is under development and testing.



  1. B. Bilgic, B. Gagoski, S.F. Cauley, A.P. Fan, J.R. Polimeni, P.E. Grant, L.L. Wald, K. Setsompop; Wave-CAIPI for Highly Accelerated 3D Imaging; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25347[PDF] [Matlab code]
  2. S.F. Cauley, K. Setsompop, B. Bilgic, H. Bhat, B.A. Gagoski, L.L. Wald; Auto-calibrated Wave-CAIPI Reconstruction; Joint Optimization of K-space Trajectory and Parallel Imaging Reconstruction; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26499
  3. D. Polak, K. Setsompop, S.F. Cauley, B.A. Gagoski, F. Maier, P. Bachert, L.L. Wald, B. Bilgic; Wave-CAIPI for Highly Accelerated MP-RAGE Imaging; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.26649
  4. B. Gagoski#, B. Bilgic#, C. Eichner, H. Bhat, P.E. Grant, L.L. Wald, K. Setsompop; RARE/Turbo Spin Echo Imaging with Simultaneous MultiSlice Wave-CAIPI; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.25615 [PDF] [Matlab code] 
    # Equal contribution
  5. M. Uecker, P. Lai, M.J. Murphy, P. Virtue, M. Elad, J.M. Pauly, S.S. Vasanawala, M. Lustig; ESPIRiT—an eigenvalue approach to autocalibrating parallel MRI: Where SENSE meets GRAPPA; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.24751
  6. M. Uecker, F. Ong, J.I. Tamir, D. Bahri, P. Virtue, J.Y. Cheng, T. Zhang, M. Lustig; Berkeley advanced reconstruction toolbox; In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting ISMRM, Toronto (p. 2486).
  7. F.A. Breuer, M. Blaimer, M.F. Mueller, N. Seiberlich, R.M. Heidemann, M.A. Griswold, P.M. Jakob; Controlled aliasing in volumetric parallel imaging (2D CAIPIRINHA); Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.20787
  8. H. Moriguchi, J.L. Duerk; Bunched phase encoding (BPE): a new fast data acquisition method in MRI; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.20819
  9. F.A. Breuer, H. Moriguchi, N. Seiberlich, M. Blaimer, P.M. Jakob, J.L. Duerk, M.A. Griswold; Zigzag sampling for improved parallel imaging; Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21643



Thanks to Steve Cauley (MGH), Borjan Gagoski (Boston Children’s Hospital), Daniel Polak (DKFZ/MGH), Kawin Setsompop (MGH), Berkin Bilgic (MGH), Himanshu Bhat (Siemens), Keith Heberlein (Siemens) for their efforts in developing this software.